The overview of the milestones of the 4th RP is shown below:

4th Railway Package Entry into force* Transposition**
Political Pillar
DIR (EU) 2016/2370 ‘Governance‘  24/12/2016  25/12/2018 
REG (EU) 2016/2338 ‘PSO’  24/12/2017  -
Technical pillar 
DIR 2016/797 ‘Interoperability’  15/06/2016  16/06/2019 
DIR 2016/798 ‘Safety’ 15/06/2016  16/06/2019
REG (EU) 2016/796 ‘ERA’   15/06/2016  -


*Entry into force: Legal texts need to be published. After the 20th day following its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union, a text enters into force.;

**Transposition: Member States are given a certain period to transpose EU legislation into national law. The timeframe depends on the type of the legal initiative. In the case of a Directive, Member States normally have 2 years from the date of the entry into force. For the case of Directive 2016/797 and 2016/798 the transposition period is three years i.e. until 16th June 2019. Member States have an option to postpone the transposition by 1 year, i.e. until 16th June 2020. To be allowed to do so, they will have to notify the EC and the ERA by 16th December 2018 and set out their reasons for doing so. In the case of a Regulation, there is no transposition period as this type of legislation applies immediately to EU countries' national law when they entered into force (see point 1 above).);

In the case of very complex legislation, such as the 4th Railway Package, the EU foresees various initiatives to help the Member States preparing the transposition. During this so-called “implementation phase”, the EU launches e.g. shadow running processes, pilot schemes, etc. This Guide addresses exactly this phase.