The 4th RP brings by substantial reforms, especially in the technical pillar:

    • Shift of technical and safety rule-making from the national to the EU level;
    • Issuing of safety certificates and vehicle authorisations by the ERA;
    • Creation of a new ERTMS track-side approval procedure by the ERA;
    • Fees and charges levied by the ERA on applicants for its certification, authorisation and approval activities;
    • Reduction of national rules by the Member States;
    • Creation of new tools and processes by the ERA (IT portal, board of appeal, pool of experts, etc.).

⇒ Each of these individual reforms has a far-reaching impact on the rail sector (financial, operational, legal, procedural, etc.). In addition, some of these reforms will be delivered through the ‘fast-track’ instrument of delegated legislation (implementing and delegated acts), reducing considerably the time between the proposal and the adoption as well as the power of scrutiny by the co-legislators and the industry.